Failure in Afghanistan: The Tragedy of Not Understanding Local Realities

Origins of the Taliban

Failure in Afghanistan

Institutional failure

Poorly-thought investments

Tribal realities


Further reading

  1. Steve Coll, Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001, London — New York, 2004.
  2. Peter Calvocoressi, World Politics Since 1945, 9th Edition, London — New York, 2009.
  3. Patrick Wintour, A tale of two armies: why Afghan forces proved no match for the Taliban, The Guardian, August 15, 2021.
  4. James H. Lebovic, Planning to Fail: The US Wars in Vietnam, Iraq, and Afghanistan, Oxford, 2019.
  5. Carl von Clausewitz, On War, Oxford, 2007 (edition for this article).



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